By F. Raid. Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans.
If research is conducted in the Pharmacoeconomic components to clinical studies most severe patients with a particular condition generic 200mg lamictal overnight delivery, do not have to be rate-limiting lamictal 200 mg cheap, but will be so when but they constitute only 5% of the treatable popu- the project team fails to bring the pharmacoecono- lation, then the perspective of those patients needs mist into the project at an early stage, i. This will mist to understand the characteristics of the inves- help to demonstrate how they might respond to tigational drug and the targeted conditions, and as treatment and to determine what the impact of the trials program is laid out, pharmacoeconomic the condition is on their quality of life. These questions should be asked before Preclinical Clinical Marketing hiring a staff pharmacoeconomist or consultant and embarking on a value-added development pro- Pharmacoeconomics gram. After reviewing the The need to demonstrate value has been discussed literature (and other sources such as the Internet), long enough, so that there is an expectation that the pharmacoeconomist should then formulate new programs will include some pharmacoeco- how to integrate which economic and humanistic nomic parameters; in many cases there may need outcome measures into the full development plan. To gather the remaining desired data risk±benefit assessment of taking the time to answer the investigators needed to collect prospectively each question thoroughly vs. Not every program requires a large-scale typical that clinical data available electronically is major prospective study to answer each question, often not complete and therefore not very useful, for many of the reasons discussed above. However, and that humanistic data is missing completely in the long run it is usually less costly in terms of from the databases held by Health Maintenance time and money to research the unknown issues Organizations. One advantage of using clinical trial patients is A study to document the outcomes of epilepsy the certainty of having patients with the condition treatment, conducted by Hirsch and Van Den of interestÐthe trade-off being a concern for the Eeden (1997), illustrates some of the challenges as- generalizability of information to the larger popu- sociated with collecting burden of illness data. The additional variables to document the Once the burden of illness information is collected burden of illness that were found illustrates the gap and analysed, the development team must move to between the type of data desired and what is avail- plan for ways to measure and document the clin- able. Hitherto, quality of life had been assessed in ical, economic and humanistic impact of the new epilepsy patients using no fewer than 12 different pharmaceutical entity or other intervention. Multiple data sources will serve as a useful guide for the design of phar- were required, since no single data base served as a macoeconomic components within clinical trials. They found that all the identified socio- indirect financial cost measures may be all that is demographic variables were available in at least required. Pharmacoeconomic parameters can still be incorporated into such a As in any other scientific endeavor, the validation study as secondary end-points, and still provide of the database is as important as its interpretation; valuable information. In some cases, it would be feasible to make using the informal method are wrong, it simply the instrument determination in a separate study, requires an appreciation of the trade-offs involved but the costs in terms of additional patients needed, in how data is collected. Furthermore, the former and other resources required, need to be carefully method might be of more use than the latter in considered before a decision to reject the inclusion exploratory pharmaceconomic research condicted of several pharmacoeconomic instruments in one in the earliest stages of drug development. Good advice is to prioritize at this stage of affect how well the results may be generalized to development: which pharmacoeconomic compon- the public at large. These factors are somewhat analogous for strike a balance between getting information in a pharmacoeconomic and traditional clinical re- timely fashion, meeting regulatory demands, and search. Generally, if re- ard operating procedures and quality analysis sources or patient burden threatens, then most should be a part of every study in which the experts would argue for retention of a disease- company invests money to collect end-points, be specific instrument when it is only possible to use a they traditional or pharmacoeconomic end- single measure. Data collection instruments need to be selected, or created and incorporated into Most companies have some form of standard oper- case report forms, just as for any other end-point. In some prospective, and should help put the pharmacoe- cases it may be appropriate to issue the pharma- conomic measures in the context of other proper- coeconomic component of a study as an appendix ties of the test medication (Table 19. The sources of process and outcomes data may vary Clinical data may be captured from providers, patients, and medical records Resource use data may be obtained from patient, administrative databases, providers or charts Quality of life data should come from the patient. The clinical data was from a random- were just a few pharmacoeconomic measures that ized, double-blind study, a key issue with the were being tested, an appendixto a clinical report agency. Placement of pharmacoeconomic articles in The future for pharmacoeconomics is promising non-specialty journals is important but difficult; in the current health care environment. However, some editors do not understand the intrinsic prop- like any discipline, pharmacoeconomics has its erties of pharmacoeconomic data, and some limitations (Jennings and Staggers 1997): reviewers will blindly apply statistical constraints that are inappropriate or not valid to humanistic 1. The structure of the departments within the same company, in paper is the same (Introduction, Methods, Results, spite of all three professing the same goal, i. Internet offer new possibilities for publication, dis- There may be fewer people to do it, there are semination, and debate (Medical Outcomes Trust more likely to be unknowns, and there may be (2001) www.
Yet these separate data have yielded no sum s th at explain th e ecology o f a lake buy discount lamictal 50 mg on line, for instance order lamictal 50 mg on-line, and its vulnerability. This is not a sim ple-minded nostrum , for upon reflection it is clear that unless ill health is the product of evil spirits, the causes of disease can be found in the ecosphere and in m an’s m anipulation of its elements. It follows that prevention and even treatm ent of disease lies in fostering conditions that are conducive to health. As our ecological knowledge grows, the im poverishm ent of our approach to health will become in creasingly evident. This approach to health is not novel (I discuss some of its roots later), but it has not been cogently expressed as a guide for action. In the preface to Habit and Habitat, Robert T heo bald distinguishes m an’s relationship to his habitat from that of other species: M an is unique. T his statem ent has been m ade so o ften — an d so incorrectly— th at we have lost sight o f th e few areas w here it is pro fo u n d ly tru e. In particular, we fail to rem em b er that m an is th e only species w hich had developed th e m eans to force his habitat into p attern s w hich he desires. H e has used ever- g re ater pow er to enable him to do w hat he w ants to do an d p rev en t those p attern s w hich he finds undesirable. T he change Theobald has in mind is from a linear hierarchic approach to decision-making to what he refers to as a “sapiential” view, one that relies on the wisdom and knowledge of the individual free o f rigid institutional constraints. He stops short o f arguing for a fundam ental change in consciousness, but not too short; changing decision-making requires changes in the mental and emotional equipm ent we bring to the problem. T heobald’s plea is simple: We m ust develop the capacity to approach our world and its problems systemically through the use of sapiential analysis. These are modes of analysis that do not tie individuals up in institutions that filter infor mation for their own purposes. Sapiential analysis compels us to be sensitive to the feedback we get from the subjects affected by o u r initiatives, and, crucially, to make adjust ments in the m ixture of inputs we bring to bear upon those subjects. O ur technology has m ade it possible to massively re arrange our environm ent to suit our needs. If a forest m ade it difficult to build our homes or facilitate our commerce, we removed it. Since we found it m ore convenient to dum p our waste products on the land and in the lakes and oceans than to recycle it, we did so. It fixes on undesirable symptoms and tries to eliminate them rather than addressing their causes. But the feedback we are getting from the spaceship in which we live—befouled air, fetid water, hum an flotsam, and noise—is forcing us to calibrate exploitation of our environm ent with its limitations. We are not getting healthier any more, as we did for many 156 The Climate for Medicine centuries. This may be because our medicine has not re spected the interconnectedness o f the hum an organism and its environm ent. We have not fully understood the extent to which our health is dependent on our overall environm ent. W hen public health measures succeeded in cleansing water and disposing o f waste, society forgot the lessons we learned from those programs. We succumbed to conceptual cow ardice and m iscom prehended the systemic nature of our existence.
The arterial phase starts 6–8 s after injection generic 100 mg lamictal fast delivery, lasting for 3–5 s; the capillary or parenchymal phase lasts for 6–8 s buy generic lamictal 100mg on-line, then the radioactivity appears inside the venous sinus, producing a venous phase. Any concentration of radiotracer outside the normal cranial distribution asymmetries or change in blood flow pattern indicates a brain or intracranial lesion. Occasionally, bilateral choroid plexus uptake in the middle of the hollow area of the brain might be mistaken for a lesion. Carotid obstruction may introduce a ‘hot nose’ sign on an angiogram due to collateral flow. Principle The human brain relies on continuous blood flow to supply all needed nutritional elements. Owing to the high extraction of oxygen from the blood, and the rapid adjustment of the blood flow to meet function demands, the brain has a special mechanism to regulate its blood flow. This regulation is relatively independent of the systemic circulation and is determined by regional cerebral function and metabolism. This is sometimes referred to as the ‘trinity’ of metabolism–function–blood-flow of the brain. Radiopharmaceuticals There are several kinds of radiopharmaceutical suitable for cerebral perfusion imaging, whose characteristics are listed in Table 5. Whatever the mechanism, retention of the tracer in proportion to cerebral blood flow is the primary requirement for imaging. After reconstitution, the radiopharmaceutical should be allowed to stand for 10 min before injection. For seizure disorders, it is important to use stable agents since the exact time of injection cannot be anticipated. The most important aspect of patient preparation is to evaluate and ensure the ability of the patient to cooperate. Whether patients are instructed to keep their eyes open or closed depends on each department’s protocol, which should be followed in all studies. After a specified interval, patients are comfortably positioned to tolerate the long imaging time. Folstein mini-mental exam or other neuropsychological test), recent morphological imaging studies (e. It is also important to know if the patient has had previous studies and their results. Preferably, to minimize the duration of sedation, it should start just prior to the acquisition of the study. However, with meticulous attention to procedure, high quality images can be obtained on single-detector instruments with appropriately longer scan times (5 million total counts or more are desirable). There should be minor obliquity of the head, although the orientation can be corrected in most systems during processing. The patient’s head should be slightly restrained to facilitate patient cooperation in minimizing motion during acquisition. Non-circular orbits are preferred, allowing a shorter distance to the patient at all angles. As a general rule of thumb, the highest resolution collimator available should be used. However, these collimators should be used with caution because of the possibility of missing areas of the brain.
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