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By Q. Vasco. Saint Thomas University.

After four years as an assistant professor of psy- chology at Dartmouth College singulair 5 mg lowest price, Allport returned to Har- vard where he remained for the rest of his career generic singulair 5 mg mastercard. He be- came an associate professor of psychology in 1937 and a full professor in 1942. He served as chairman of the Psy- chology Department and helped found Harvard’s Depart- ment of Social Relations. In 1939 he was elected presi- dent of the American Psychological Association and, in 1964, received the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award of that society. Publishes theory of personality Allport’s first major book, Personality: A Psycholog- ical Interpretation (1937), distinguished between traits that are common to many people, such as assertiveness, and personal dispositions which are traits that are charac- teristic of the individual. The latter were classified ac- cording to their degree of influence on an individual per- sonality. Allport also identified how individuals develop self-awareness throughout childhood and adolescence. Allport (Archives of the History of American One of Allport’s most important concepts, functional au- Psychology. Personali- ty: A Psychological Interpretation remained the standard During his career, Allport published 12 books and text on personality theory for many years. In 1961, fol- more than 200 papers on psychology and held important lowing years of study and research, Allport published a positions in American and foreign psychological associ- major revision of this work, Pattern and Growth in Per- ations. He also helped to develop methods of personali- and Social Psychology from 1937 until 1949. Boston ty assessment, including the A-S Reaction Study (1928), University awarded him an honorary L. He also held honorary doctorates from Ohio Wes- leyan University, Colby College, and the University of Durham in England. He died of lung cancer in Cam- Examines the nature of prejudice bridge, Massachusetts, in 1967. As a visiting Further Reading consultant at the University of Natal in South Africa in Allport, G. Humanism in Personal- terpretation (1950), in which he warned of the preju- ogy: Allport, Maslow, and Murray. Chicago: AldineAther- dices that could be fostered by institutionalized religions. Boston: Harvard Med- An irreversible, progressive condition in which ical School Health Publications, 1994. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common degenera- tive brain disorder, although onset of the disease is rare before the age of 60. After that age, the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease increases steadily, and more than American Academy of Child one-quarter of all individuals above the age of 85 have and Adolescent Psychiatry this disease. General interest and re- adolescent psychiatrists, all of whom have at least five search focusing on the cause and treatment of this condi- years of additional training beyond medical school in the tion have grown in recent years because the number of fields of general and child and adolescent psychiatry. The members of the Academy actively research, diag- The cause of Alzheimer’s disease is not known, but nose, and treat psychiatric disorders affecting children several theories of causality have been advanced. These and adolescents and their families and support their ac- theories propose genetic, environmental, viral, immuno- tivities through a variety of programs. The Academy was established in 1953 as the Ameri- The specific features of Alzheimer’s disease vary from can Academy of Child Psychiatry with fewer than 100 individual to individual, but the general course of the members. The symptoms ganization whose mission is to direct and respond quick- of the disease tend to be more severe at night. The first ly to new developments in the health care environment, stage of Alzheimer’s disease is usually forgetfulness, ac- particularly as they affect the needs of children, adoles- companied by some anxiety and mild depression. This set of symptoms is usually members and the public, and to disseminate information, followed by profound spatial and temporal disorienta- including position statements on various issues such as tion, delusions, hallucinations, incontinence, general adolescent psychiatric hospitalization, pregnancy pre- physical decline, and death.

The therapist will also realize that Bethany will probably try to resist the work of the therapist proven 4 mg singulair. For one 10mg singulair with amex, cognitive therapy will likely be used in an attempt to change Bethany‘s distortions of reality. She feels that people are rejecting her, but she is probably bringing these rejections on herself. If she can learn to better understand the meaning of other people‘s actions, she may feel better. And the therapist will likely begin using some techniques of behavior therapy, for instance, by rewarding Bethany for successful social interactions and progress toward meeting her important goals. Hopefully, Bethany will stay in treatment long enough to make some real progress in repairing her broken life. A dialectical behavioral therapist begins by attempting to develop a positive therapeutic alliance with the client, and then tries to encourage the patient to become part of the treament process. The therapist will use both individual and group therapy, helping the patient work toward improving interpersonal effectiveness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance skills. In eclectic therapy, the therapist uses whatever treatment approaches seem most likely to be effective for the client. Imagine that your friend has been feeling depressed for several months but refuses to consider therapy as an option. What might you tell her that might help her feel more comfortable about seeking treatment? Imagine that you have developed a debilitating fear of bees after recently being attacked by a swarm of them. Based on what you’ve learned in this section, what treatment options would you explore in your attempt to provide him with the best help available? Neuropsychiatry at the millennium: The potential for mind/brain integration through emerging interdisciplinary research strategies. Neuropsychological predictors of functional outcome in cognitive behavioral social skills training for older people with schizophrenia. Social skills training augments the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder. Effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for nocturnal enuresis. Chronic nailbiting: A controlled comparison of competing response and mild aversion treatments. Follow-up of 180 alcoholic patients for up to 7 years after outpatient treatment: Impact of alcohol deterrents on outcome. Why rational emotive behavior therapy is the most comprehensive and effective form of behavior therapy. Clinical management of depression, hopelessness, and suicidality in patients with bipolar disorder. Classify the different types of drugs used in the treatment of mental disorders and explain how they each work to reduce disorder. Critically evaluate direct brain intervention methods that may be used by doctors to treat patients who do not respond to drug or other therapy. Like other medical problems, psychological disorders may in some cases be treated biologically. Biomedical therapies are treatments designed to reduce psychological disorder by influencing the action of the central nervous system. Drug Therapies Psychologists understand that an appropriate balance of neurotransmitters in the brain is necessary for mental health. If there is a proper balance of chemicals, then the person‘s mental health will be acceptable, but psychological disorder will result if there is a chemical imbalance.

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Is necessary for absorption of fat-soluble vitamins Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 9 discount 5 mg singulair visa. Scurvy 10mg singulair sale, hemorrhage, delayed wound healing Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Hypokalemia, muscle cramps and weak- detoxification reactions ness, irregular heartbeat 26. Microcytic anemia, pallor, decreased clotting, nerve transmission, muscle work capacity, fatigue, weakness contraction 16. Oxidizes sulfur and products of sulfur inflammation and poor wound healing metabolism Match the function in Part B with the mineral 34. List one food source for each balance; energy metabolism mineral on the line provided at the end of the sentence. Micronutrients Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. The study of nutrients and how they are person to mild or subclinical deficiencies of handled by the body vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, and vitamin B6. Vitamins and minerals that are required in much smaller amounts to regulate and control body processes e. Explain the difference between the following the function and recommended percentage fatty acids, and give an example of each. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Briefly describe the following eating disorders and the typical characteristics of individuals c. Megadoses of nutrient supplements: Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. What developmental you are caring for at home for adequate factors influence their nutritional needs? Describe the following types of diets, noting include the recommended number of servings their nutritional value, and give an example of foods from the food pyramid? Briefly describe the following types of enteral Use the following expanded scenario from feedings, noting their advantages and disad- Chapter 36 in your textbook to answer the vantages. Nasogastric feeding tube: Scenario: William Johnston, a 42-year-old executive, is newly diagnosed with high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Nasointestinal feeding tube: that his health has been the last thing on his mind and that his health habits are less than admirable. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. I guess it’s no wonder I’ve gained his admission to the hospital because she was a few pounds over the years!

Behind this discount 4mg singulair with visa, the vulva consists of two flaps of fatty tissue: the outer lips purchase 10 mg singulair with mastercard, or labia majora; and the smaller, hairless inner lips, the labia minora. Just above where the inner lips join is a small flap of tissue called the clitoral hood, under which is the clitoris, erectile tissue that swells during sexual arousal. Below the clitoris is the exter- nal opening of the urethra and below that is the introitus, the opening to the vagina. Tunica albuginea Secondary follicle Cortex of stroma Germinal epithelium Follicular fluid Primary follicle Cumulus oophorus Graafian follicle Membrana granulosa Blood vessels Medulla of stroma entering Blood clot hilus of ovary Corpus albicans Early corpus luteum Figure 14-1: Mature Corona radiata The ovary. Pituitary Chapter 14: Carrying Life Forward: The Female Reproductive System 223 11. Use the terms that follow to identify the anatomy of the female reproductive system shown in Figure 14-2. Normal human diploid, or 2N, cells contain 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes each. One chromosome from each pair comes from the individual’s mother, and the other comes from the father. Each homol- ogous pair contains the same type of genetic information, but the expression of this genetic information may differ from one chromosome of the pair to the homologous chromosome. For example, one chromosome from the mother may carry the genetic coding for blue eyes, whereas the homologous chromosome from the father may code for brown eyes. Although all the body’s cells have 46 chromosomes — including the cells that eventu- ally mature into the ovum and the sperm — each gamete (either ovum or sperm) must offer only half that number if fertilization is to succeed. As you see in Figure 14-3, the number of chromosomes is cut in half during the first meiotic division, producing gametes that are haploid, or 1N. The second mei- otic division produces four haploid sperms in the male but only one functional haploid ovum in the female. When fertilization occurs, the new zygote will contain 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes. The zygote then proceeds through mitosis to produce the body’s cells, distributing copies of all 46 chromosomes to each new cell. Zygote Chapter 14: Carrying Life Forward: The Female Reproductive System 225 Think you’ve conquered this process? Fill in the blanks to complete the following sentences: Meiosis produces sperm and ovum, which contributes to making a 41. The number of chromosomes is cut in half during the first meiotic division, producing gametes that are 45. But that doesn’t mean that sexual intercourse outside that time frame can’t lead to pregnancy. Research indicates that spermatozoa can survive up to seven days inside the uterus and Fallopian tubes. If a sperm is still motile — that is, if it’s still whipping its flagellum tail — when an ovum comes down the tube, it will do what it was made to do and penetrate the ovum’s membrane. When the sperm penetrates the ovum, it releases enzymes that allow it to digest its way into the ovum, leaving its flagellum behind. After that first sperm penetrates, the mem- brane instantly solidifies around the ovum, preventing any other sperm from getting inside. Over the next three to five days, the zygote moves through the Fallopian tube to the uterus, undergoing cleavage (mitotic cell division) along the way: Two cells become four smaller cells, four cells become eight smaller cells, and then those eight cells become a solid 16-cell ball called a morula.

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Essential fatty acids: A deficiency can cause hair loss; supplements can help improve the health of scalp and hair purchase singulair 5 mg online. Orthosilicic acid: Enhances collagen formation and makes hair stronger and thicker order singulair 4 mg on line. Taking silicon supplements will not yield the same results as silicon is poorly absorbed. Orthosilicic acid is the bioavailable (usable) form of silicon and is available in Canada under the name BioSil. In this study, half of the participants massaged a combination of 256 essential oils of thyme, rosemary, lavender, and cedarwood onto their scalps each day. After seven months, 44 percent of the patients using the essential oils showed significant improvement in hair growth com- pared to only 15 percent improvement in the placebo group (Archives of Dermatology, 1998: 134; 1349–1352). Complementary Supplements Grape seed extract: A potent antioxidant that has been shown in preliminary research to stimulate hair growth. Minerals: Iron, selenium, and zinc are essential for hair growth; a deficiency can cause hair loss. Eat lots of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fish, nuts, seeds, and ensure adequate protein intake. While cancer is highly feared, heart disease is actually the leading cause of death among Canadians. The blood vessel wall reacts to this injury by depositing cholesterol, calcium, and other substances on the inner lining of the artery. The result is a progressive thickening of the blood vessel wall, which reduces the supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart, leading to chest pain (angina). If the coronary arteries become completely blocked and the flow of blood is cut off, a heart attack (myocardial infarction) occurs, which results in damage to the heart muscle. H High blood pressure, high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood, and smoking can all contribute to the development of plaque. Inflammation causes damage to the arterial walls and further narrows the passageways. Years of smoking, stress, high blood pressure and cholesterol, uncontrolled blood sugar (diabetes), and poor diet take a toll on your heart and contribute to the development of heart disease. The good news is that there are many ways to keep your heart healthy and reduce your risk of heart disease. For example, obesity often leads to diabetes and high blood pressure and cholesterol. This cluster of problems is called metabolic syndrome, which greatly increases the risk of heart disease. In recent years, research has identified other factors that may increase your risk of heart disease. High levels of fibrinogen may promote excessive clumping of platelets, which can cause a clot, lead- ing to a heart attack or stroke. Stud- ies suggest that elevated homocysteine increases the risk of heart disease by causing damage to the lining of the arteries and promoting clots. Homocysteine metabolism is controlled by vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid, and a deficiency of these nutrients can increase levels. The protein that carries lipoprotein (a) may disrupt your body’s ability to dissolve blood clots, and high levels of this substance may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.

While media portrayal of mental illness is often sympathetic generic singulair 5 mg on line, negative stereotypes still remain in newspapers order singulair 5mg visa, magazines, film, and television. Burger King recently ran an ad called ―The King’s Gone Crazy,‖ in which the company’s mascot runs around an office complex carrying out acts of violence and wreaking havoc. The most significant problem of the stigmatization of those with psychological disorder is that it slows their recovery. People with mental problems internalize societal attitudes about mental illness, often becoming so embarrassed or ashamed that they conceal their difficulties and fail to seek treatment. Stigma leads to lowered self-esteem, increased Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Despite all of these challenges, however, many people overcome psychological disorders and go on to lead productive lives. It is up to all of us who are informed about the causes of psychological disorder and the impact of these conditions on people to understand, first, that mental illness is not a ―fault‖ any more than is cancer. The axes are important to remember when we think about psychological disorder, because they make it clear not only that there are different types of disorder, but that those disorders have a variety of different causes. The axes remind us that when making a diagnosis we must look at the complete picture, including biological, personal, and social-cultural factors. For instance, the disorder of mental retardation can be classified as mild, moderate, or severe. In school, he cannot stay in his seat for very long and he frequently does not follow instructions. Zack has poor social skills and may overreact when someone accidentally bumps into him or uses one of his toys. At home, he chatters constantly and rarely settles down to do a quiet activity, such as reading a book. Symptoms such as Zack‘s are common among 7-year-olds, and particularly among boys. Boys mature more slowly than girls at this age, and perhaps Zack will catch up in the next few years. One possibility is for the parents and teachers to work with Zack to help him be more attentive, to put up with the behavior, and to wait it out. But many parents, often on the advice of the child‘s teacher, take their children to a psychologist for diagnosis. Other studies have also pointed to environmental factors, such as mothers‘ smoking and drinking alcohol during pregnancy and the consumption of lead and food additives by those who are affected (Braun, Kahn, Froehlich, [23] Auinger, & Lanphear, 2006; Linnet et al. Jared is able to maintain eye contact and enjoys mixing with other children, but he cannot communicate with them very well. He often responds to questions or comments with long-winded speeches about trucks or some other topic that interests him, and he seems to lack awareness of other children‘s wishes and needs. Jared‘s concerned parents took him to a multidisciplinary child development center for consultation. Here he was tested by a pediatric neurologist, a psychologist, and a child psychiatrist. The pediatric neurologist found that Jared‘s hearing was normal, and there were no signs of any neurological disorder. He diagnosed Jared with a pervasive developmental disorder, because while his comprehension and expressive language was poor, he was still able to carry out nonverbal tasks, such as drawing a picture or doing a puzzle. Based on her observation of Jared‘s difficulty interacting with his peers, and the fact that he did not respond warmly to his parents, the psychologist diagnosed Jared with autistic disorder (autism), a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior, and in which symptoms begin before 7 years of age.

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Possible problems Nitrogen dioxide Even small doses of nitrogen dioxide cause acute lung injury from pneumonitis and fulminant pulmonary oedema (Grover 1993) discount singulair 5 mg amex. High concentrations of nitric oxide hasten nitrogen dioxide formation; Frostell et al purchase 5mg singulair with visa. Ventilator flow rates and I:E ratio do not affect conversion, but high oxygen concentrations (FiO2 0. Nitrogen dioxide levels should be monitored if using more than 40 ppm nitric oxide (Dellinger et al. Nitric oxide 279 Pulmonary complications Inhaled nitric oxide enters functional alveoli, and so selectively vasodilates ventilated lungfields (Mulnier & Evans 1995), diverting blood from unventilated alveoli and thus delaying healing and recovery (Grover 1993). Nitric oxide also inhibits platelet-derived growth factor release, and so may inhibit smooth muscle proliferation and increase atherosclerosis (Foubert et al. It may also prolong coagulation (Greenough 1995); its brief half-life should limit systemic effects from inhaled nitric oxide, although pulmonary bleeding may occur with trauma (e. The abrupt removal of nitric oxide can cause rebound pulmonary hypertension (Mulnier & Evans 1995; Rykerson et al. The literature does not suggest rates for weaning, but pulmonary artery pressure monitoring can identify rebound hypertension. Although ‘prolonged’ is not clarified, both these effects may prolong critical illness. Methaemoglobin If nitric oxide binding to haem exceeds metabolism, methaemoglobin occurs (Greene & Klinger 1998), although therapeutic doses are usually sufficiently low to prevent this (Rykerson et al. Studies measuring methaemoglobin conversion found ranges of 1–3 per cent; Dellinger et al. Semple and Bellamy (1995), Mulnier and Evans (1995)) recommend measuring methaemoglobin levels to ensure they remain below 3 per cent, especially if the nitric oxide dose exceeds 40 ppm (Dellinger et al. When changing cylinders, these should be flushed through before use to clear residual nitrogen dioxide (Greenough 1995). As a possible toxic pollutant, environmental contamination by nitric oxide should be controlled. Scavenging systems may or may not be necessary (Mulnier & Evans 1995; Young & Dyar 1996). Nitrogen dioxide is far more toxic and should be monitored in both inhaled and exhaled gas (Grover 1993). This apparent contradiction means that manufacturers are not liable for any Intensive care nursing 280 problems arising from its use (Young & Dyar 1996). Claims for compensation might therefore be made directly against nurses (or their employers). Implications for practice ■ benefits from nitric oxide remain unproven ■ nitric oxide can form nitrogen dioxide, a highly toxic environmental pollutant ■ atmospheric levels should be controlled by measuring exhaled nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide levels ■ methaemoglobin levels are probably insignificant ■ delivery should be continuous, disconnection from circuits being avoided whenever possible. Therapeutically, many aspects of nitric oxide and its use need further clarification, including benefits and long-term effects. Like many novel therapies, use has been largely confined to rescue attempts when more conventional therapies have failed; rather than attempting to repair damage, prevention of progression is a logical goal. Further reading Many medical articles on nitric oxide have appeared; Greenough (1994) gives a useful overview, although rapid changes in knowledge base limit the use of material this old; Powronznyk & Latimer (1997) is a useful, more recent, overview, while Cuthbertson et al. Despite inverse ratio ventilation, prone positioning and other therapies, Mrs O’Reilly’s alveolar gas exchange remains poor. Critically analyse the rationale for monitoring her methaemoglobin levels every 12 hours.

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